Wednesday, August 16, 2023

Sources of ADA and ABERE

𝗦𝗼𝘂𝗿𝗰𝗲 𝗼𝗳 À𝗱á ( À𝗱á Ò𝗴ú𝗻) 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗔𝗯ẹ̀𝗿ẹ̀ ( 𝗔𝗯ẹ𝗿ẹ𝗻 𝗼𝗿 Ẹ𝗯ẹ𝗻)

Àdá Ògún is associated with Ògún ( The Imole/Òrìṣà of Justice, Pathfinder and King)

The Ọọni ( Ọ̀ɣọ̀nẹ Ufẹ̀) issues the Abẹrẹn (aka. Ẹbẹn).

The Àdá & Abẹ̀rẹ̀ ( or Ẹbẹn) are usually shown during the Important Annual Festival called Odun Olojo ( a festival associated with Ògún)

There are actual photograph evidences showing some Ifẹ chiefs with their Abẹrẹ.

It's most likely that Oranmiyan Ifè centric expeditions may have Proliferated these insignias, whereby kingdoms that then had association with Kingdoms he founded or established got to have the Àdá & the Abẹrẹ, as it's found in many Kingdoms across the bight of Benin.

There are art-historical evidence in the Ifẹ art corpus depicting the Àdá & the Abẹrẹ being hoisted.

In fact, this particular epigraphic evidence actually predates the Ifẹ terracotta.
And we know that the Ifẹ terracottas predate the Ifẹ bronzes.

This epigraphic evidence dates from the archaic/pre-pavement era(800-1000 AD) of Ifẹ when the artworks were executed in stone as well as rock carvings as will be seen attached.

What this evidence does establish beyond a shadow of doubt (besides the linguistic evidence of Àdá & Abẹ̀rẹ̀/Ẹbẹrẹ/Ẹbẹn) is: 𝗔𝗿𝗰𝗵𝗮𝗲𝗼𝗹𝗼𝗴𝗶𝗰𝗮𝗹/𝗲𝗽𝗶𝗴𝗿𝗮𝗽𝗵𝗶𝗰 𝗲𝘃𝗶𝗱𝗲𝗻𝗰𝗲 𝗱𝗼𝗲𝘀 𝗶𝗻 𝗳𝗮𝗰𝘁 𝗲𝘅𝗶𝘀𝘁 𝗶𝗻 𝗜𝗳𝗲̣ 𝘄𝗵𝗶𝗰𝗵 𝘀𝗵𝗼𝘄𝘀 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗔̀𝗱𝗮́ & 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗔𝗯𝗲̣̀𝗿𝗲̣̀ 𝗶𝗻 𝗽𝗿𝗲-𝘁𝗲𝗿𝗿𝗮𝗰𝗼𝘁𝘁𝗮 𝗮𝗿𝘁 𝗺𝗲𝗱𝗶𝘂𝗺 — 𝗿𝗼𝗰𝗸 𝗰𝗮𝗿𝘃𝗶𝗻𝗴𝘀 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝗔𝗴𝗶𝗱𝗶 𝘀𝗶𝘁𝗲 𝗶𝗻 the 𝘀𝗼𝘂𝘁𝗵 of 𝗜𝗳𝗲̣. 𝗧𝗵𝗶𝘀 𝗲𝗽𝗶𝗴𝗿𝗮𝗽𝗵𝗶𝗰 𝗲𝘃𝗶𝗱𝗲𝗻𝗰𝗲 𝗼𝗳 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝘂𝘀𝗲 𝗼𝗳 𝗔̀𝗱𝗮́ & 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗔𝗯𝗲̣̀𝗿𝗲̣̀ 𝗽𝗿𝗲𝗱𝗮𝘁𝗲𝘀 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝘂𝘀𝗲 𝗼𝗳 𝘁𝗵𝗲𝘀𝗲 𝗼𝗯𝗷𝗲𝗰𝘁𝘀 𝗶𝗻 𝗕𝗲𝗻𝗶𝗻 𝗯𝘆 𝗰𝗲𝗻𝘁𝘂𝗿𝗶𝗲𝘀.

The first image below shows a drawing of this objects [labeled a to d] by F. Willett as shown on page 80 of his 
“Ifè in the History of West African Sculpture,” published in the year 1967.

Another evidence is found in a page from " Divine Kingship in West Africa" 

Author(s): E. G. Parrinder, published in 1956, it states:

The crowning of the king was done by a Queen Mother. The king was not supposed to have a natural mother, and if she was still alive at his accession she was asked to "go to sleep". Then he came under the care of several official royal mothers, one of whom had charge of the royal insignia which she could withhold if she did not approve of the candidate for the throne. It was her privilege to place the beaded crown on the king's head.

 Then royal robes are put on him, a chain of beads round his neck, and a staff and Sword of Mercy in his hands Five days later he repaired to another temple where he was presented with a Sword of Justice from the city of Ife. This alone gave the king power of life and death. He kissed the sword and returned it to Ife. 

Finally after another five days there came a visit to the temple of the war god and prayers for a peaceful reign. Only after this did the king enter his palace for the first time. 

A special door was made for him through the wall, and at the threshold numerous sacrifices were made including, formerly, a man and a woman. When he is installed then, and only then, the death of the late king is announced.

 It is said that he has "entered the vault of the skies". In the interregnum the chief officer of state had per- formed the royal functions.

"In the last century the most powerful Yoruba king was the Alafin of Oyo, whose kingdom had once extended from Benin to Dahomey. He overshadowed at that time the Oni of Ife, but nevertheless he received from the latter the Sword of Justice at his coronation".

Source: Think Yoruba First 

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