Showing posts with label history. Show all posts
Showing posts with label history. Show all posts

Thursday, April 18, 2024

Saturday, April 13, 2024

21 Great Books That Will Teach You About African History

21 Great Books That Will Teach You About African History

21 Great Books That Will Teach You About African History:

(1). Introduction to African Civilization by, John G. Jackson

(2). Man, God and Civilization, by John G. Jackson

(3). The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality, by Cheikh Anta Diop

(4). The Destruction of Black Civilization, by Chancellor Williams

(5). The Journey of the Songhai People, by Edward W. Robinson

(6). Egypt Revisited, Editor Ivan Van Sertima

(7). Black Man of the Nile and His Family, by Dr. Yosef A.A. beJohannaan

(8). Nile Valley Contributions to Civilization, by Tony Browder

(9). The African Presence in Early Asia, Edited by Runoko Rashidi

(10). Christianity Before Christ, by John G. Jackson

(11). Stolen Legacy by, George G.M. James

(12). Cultural Hegemony and African American Development, by Clovis E. Semmes

(13). Ancient Future, by Wayne B. Chandler

(14). The Science & the Myth of Melanin: Dispelling The Rumors, Exposing the Facts by, T. Owens Moore, Ph. D.

(15). The African Unconscious, by Edward Bruce Bynum

(16). The Fall of America, Elijah Muhammad

(17). Dark Light Consciousness, by Edward Bruce Bynum

(18). The Autobiography of Malcolm X, by Malcolm X

(19). Star of Deep Beginnings byDrr. Charles Finch

(20). Awakening the Natural Genius of Black Children, by Dr. Amos Wilson

(21). The Developmental Psychology of the Black Child, by Dr. Amos Wilson

Wednesday, April 3, 2024

Nigerian guys carrying MUNGO PARK , To go and discover River -Niger in 1769

Nigerian guys carrying MUNGO PARK , To go and discover River -Niger in 1769

Nigerian guys carrying MUNGO PARK , To go and discover River -Niger in 1769  

😃 😢 😭 

This what the thought us in school and we all believed ... CHAI 🤔 

RIVER NIGER that our ancestors have been going to fish ,before the white invàde us 

I ,repeat Something is wrong with our Educational system 


Monday, April 1, 2024

The Badagry slave port

The Badagry slave port

As one of the five divisions created by the Lagos State in 1968 in Nigeria, Badagry or Badagri is an ancient town in Nigeria with a dark past and a significant present. 

The small coastal town and lagoon port is one of the most important towns in the colonial history of Nigeria and Africa and is close to 593 years old.

Unlike Ghana and the West African countries, the infamous slavery that happened in the colonial days in Nigeria is sidelined on the historical front of Africa.

 However, Nigeria and its small-town Badagry, hold a very significant part of the slave trading and missionary work days of ancient Africa.

The town was originally established around 1425AD by the indigenes of the land. 

The second largest commercial town in Lagos State developed through the expansion of the settlements of the indigenous people along the coast of Gberefu Island.

The town was originally established around 1425AD by the indigenes of the land. 

The second largest commercial town in Lagos State developed through the expansion of the settlements of the indigenous people along the coast of Gberefu Island.

A popular Yoruba narrative explains that the town’s first settlers were an Awori group who were originally from Ile – Ife.

 The town is said to have served the Oyo Empire and thrived in the trade of salt. It is believed that the name of the town is a fusion of two words, first, the local wor ‘greme’ which translates to farm from the Ogu language of the Egun people, and from the name Agbedehe, a famous farmer who is said to be the first settler and founder of the settlement.

The phrase Agbedehegreme, which means Agbedehe’s farm is said to have been pronounced and corrupted into the name of the town today. 


The name first changed from Agbedegreme to Agbedagari by new Yoruba settlers with a different dialect and then changed from Agbedagari to Badagry by European slave traders.


Presently, the town is inhabited by the Egun and Awuri people from Ogun state. By the 15th century, the Badagry port had become a popular route for trade.

Around 1736, a notable transaction that changed the town from a peaceful settlement into a slave port is said to be the innocent welcome of a Dutch trader who settled in a nearby town from the West of Nigeria.


 He is believed to have found a new home in Apa while hiding from a great African chief who wanted him dead for an unknown reason.

The Dutch settler mixed well with the people and was given a small piece of land to farm. He was locally known as Yovo Huntokonu but would later be identified as Hendrik Hertog. 

Hertog will later acquire the land and take ownership of it in a way that betrayed the people who initially thought that he was one of them.

After acquiring the land, the Dutch trader transformed the town into a trade centre which brought more Europeans into the land. The Portuguese and Brazilians had settled in the land after a while and this opened the gates for the extensive slave trade in the area.

While thriving as a trade centre, the chiefs of Badagry were very rich and powerful and therefore started to engage in what is known as domestic slavery. 

The wealthy people gained more respect from the number of slaves that one had. These slaves were capture through wars or through the many slave ships that passed through Badagry port to Brazil and the Americas.

Some scholars have concluded that the indigenous people of Badagry were never captured as slaves. Due to the town serving as a slave trade stop for slaves that were being taken from other neighbouring countries, no attention was given to the locals.

It is recorded that, as compared to other ancient towns, less than 100 locals found their way onto the slave trips. With the chiefs and wealthy people also buying slaves, there was no need for the locals to be captured.

The peak period of the slave trade in Badagry was between 1736 and 1789 and dominated by Portuguese and Brazilian traders. Slaves were transported from West Africa through Badagry and by 1787, more than 550,000 African slaves were transported to Europe, South America and the Carribean. After a while, trading in slaves became a major income source for the Europeans in Badagry and the local chiefs.

After the abolishing of slavery in England, the trade diminished but continued until the early 19th century. The decline in the trade saw many of the European traders leave and being replaced by missionaries and educators who established the first schools and churches in Badagry.

By 1840, the town became a town for Christain missionary work. In 1842, Thomas Birch Freeman preached Christianity to the locals for the first time and celebrated the first Chrismas in Nigeria in 1842.

By 1880, coconut plantations were established in the land and captured slaves, as well as those rejected at the ports, were made to work on the land. In modern times, Badagry still exports coconuts.

Today, Badagry is noted to be a well preserved colonial town with buildings and sites that existed during the slave trade still in existence. Many such places within the town include the slave port, the point of no return, the slave market, the holding cells and boats. Other places of interest include the Badagry Heritage Museum, the Seriki Faremi Slave Museum and the first bible and the first missionary building

Sunday, March 31, 2024

Monday, March 18, 2024




Background to the War

The Egba-Dahomey War was a series of conflicts between the Egba people of present-day southwestern Nigeria and the Dahomey Kingdom of the present-day Benin Republic. The war lasted from 1843 to 1851 and was one of the major conflicts in West Africa during the 19th century.

The Egba people were part of the Yoruba ethnic group. They had settled in the Abeokuta area of present-day Nigeria in the early 19th century. On the other hand, the Dahomey Kingdom was a powerful West African state that had emerged in the 17th century and had become a major regional power by the 19th century.

Throughout the 1820s and 1830s, the Old Oyo Empire was in disarray, with the rising influence of the Fulani Empire being a major factor. The Fulani Empire was founded by the Fulani people in the early 19th century. The Fulani Empire was expanding rapidly and encroaching on Oyo territory, which led to conflict between the two empires. In addition to the threat posed by the Fulani Empire, the Old Oyo Empire faced internal challenges. The political climate of the Empire was fraught with infighting between various groups. A collapse in commerce and agriculture, the Empire’s traditional sources of riches, worsen the economic problems.

The Dahomey kingdom, which was a part of the Oyo Empire, capitalised on the infighting in the Empire to declare itself independent. Immediately after declaring independence, the new Dahomey Kingdom was plagued by poor economic fortunes caused by infertile land in its north and the declining slave trade. The Kingdom saw the possibility of fertile land in Ajase-Ipo and Egbado; both communities were in Egba land.

The Egba-Dahomey war was the third of three ruinous wars that led to the final fall of the Oyo Empire. The first two wars are the Owu-Ife war (1821-1828) and the Osogbo war (1840). These three internal wars led to political instability and the demise of the Oyo Empire.

The Causes of the War

The causes of the Egba-Dahomey War were rooted in the Dahomey Kingdom’s expansionist policies and the Egba people’s resistance to their territorial expansion. Several factors contributed to the conflict, including:

Territorial Ambitions: The Dahomey Kingdom, under the leadership of King Gezo, had territorial ambitions to expand its influence and control over neighbouring states, including the Egba people.

Slavery: The Dahomey Kingdom was heavily involved in the slave trade and captured and sold many slaves from neighbouring states, including the Egba people. This created tension and resentment among the Egba towards the Dahomey.

Religious and Cultural Differences: The Egba people practised a different religion and had a different culture from the Dahomey Kingdom. This created friction between the two groups, and the Dahomey saw the Egba as a threat to their cultural and religious beliefs.

Personal Animosity: There were also personal animosities between some of the leaders of the Dahomey and Egba. For example, King Gezo of Dahomey had a personal grudge against the Egba and was determined to defeat them.
These factors combined to create a volatile situation that eventually led to the outbreak of war between the Egba and Dahomey.

The Main Occurrences

The conflict between the Egba and Dahomey started when the Dahomey Kingdom began expanding its territory into the Abeokuta area. The Egba people resisted the Dahomey expansion and managed to repel several Dahomey attacks. However, the Dahomey army was well-trained and equipped with firearms, which gave them an advantage over the Egba warriors, who mainly used traditional weapons.

The conflict escalated when the Dahomey army captured some Egba towns and took prisoners, some of whom were later sacrificed in Dahomey’s traditional religious ceremonies. This sparked outrage among the Egba people, who decided to fight back and defend their territory.

The Egba formed an alliance with the British colonial authorities, who were expanding their influence in the region. The British provided the Egba with weapons and ammunition, which gave them an advantage over the Dahomey army. In 1851, the Egba forces, led by their commander-in-chief, Sodeke, defeated the Dahomey army in a decisive battle.

The war had far-reaching consequences for the region. The defeat of the Dahomey Kingdom by the Egba people marked the beginning of the decline of the Dahomey Kingdom, which was eventually absorbed into the French colonial Empire in the late 19th century. The Egba people, on the other hand, became an important regional power and played a significant role in the politics of southwestern Nigeria.

Major Battles

The Egba-Dahomey War was characterised by a series of battles fought between the Egba and the Dahomey Kingdom. Here are some of the major battles that took place during the conflict:

Battle of Oke-Adan (1844): This was the first major battle of the war, fought between the Egba and Dahomey armies. The Egba army, led by their war chief, Oshodi, were able to repel the Dahomey army and prevent them from advancing further into Egba territory.
Battle of Imoshe (1849): This battle was fought between the Egba army and a Dahomey army led by King Gezo himself. The Egba army, led by Oshodi, defeated the Dahomey army and captured some of their weapons and ammunition.

Battle of Owu (1850): This battle was fought between the Egba army and the Owu kingdom, which had allied with the Dahomey Kingdom. The Egba army, with the support of British-trained soldiers, was able to defeat the Owu army and capture their leader, who was later executed.
Battle of Abeokuta (July 1851): This was the most significant battle of the war, fought between the Egba and Dahomey armies. The Dahomey army had launched a major assault on Abeokuta, the capital of the Egba kingdom. The Egba army, led by their commander-in-chief, Sodeke, and with the support of British-trained soldiers, were able to repel the attack and force the Dahomey army to retreat.
These battles, along with several others, were fought over the course of several years and contributed to the eventual defeat of the Dahomey Kingdom by the Egba people.

Major Actors and Their Participation

The Egba-Dahomey War involved several major actors, each with their own role to play in the conflict. Here are some of the major actors and their participation in the war:

Egba Kingdom: The Egba people were the main protagonists in the war. They were fighting to protect their territory and resist the territorial ambitions of the Dahomey Kingdom. The Egba army was led by commanders such as Sodeke, Oshodi, and later, Shodeke, and they received support from the British colonial authorities.
Dahomey Kingdom: The Dahomey Kingdom, under the leadership of King Gezo, was the primary aggressor in the conflict. They were seeking to expand their influence and control over neighbouring states, including the Egba people. The Dahomey army was well-trained and well-equipped, with access to firearms and other weapons.

British Colonial Authorities: The British colonial authorities had an interest in the region and saw the Egba people as potential allies against the expansionist policies of Dahomey. The British provided the Egba people with weapons and ammunition, which gave them an advantage over the Dahomey army.
Yoruba City-States: The Yoruba city-states, including Ibadan and Oyo, also played a role in the conflict. They provided support to the Egba people, and some of their soldiers fought alongside the Egba army in battles such as the Battle of Abeokuta.
Slave Traders: The slave trade was a major factor in the conflict, and slave traders from Europe and America played a role in arming and financing the Dahomey Kingdom. The Dahomey Kingdom was heavily involved in the slave trade and captured and sold many slaves from neighbouring states, including the Egba people.

The Egba and Dahomey War-top warriors

The Egba-Dahomey War featured several notable warriors who played significant roles in the conflict. Here are some of the top warriors:

Sodeke: Sodeke was the commander-in-chief of the Egba army and led the defence of Abeokuta during the Battle of Abeokuta. He is credited with organising the Egba resistance and mobilising the people to fight against the Dahomey Kingdom.
Oshodi: Oshodi was a war chief and one of the key Egba commanders during the war. He led the Egba army in several battles, including the Battle of Oke-Adan and the Battle of Imoshe.

Shodeke: Shodeke was the son of Sodeke and took over as the Egba commander-in-chief after his father’s death. He led the Egba army in the war’s final battle, the Battle of Ikirun.

King Gezo: King Gezo was the ruler of the Dahomey Kingdom and led the Dahomey army in several battles, including the Battle of Imoshe. He was known for his military prowess and was responsible for expanding the Dahomey Kingdom’s influence in the region.

Madam Tinubu: Madam Tinubu was a Yoruba trader and warrior who played a significant role in the conflict. She provided financial support to the Egba people and was instrumental in securing British support for their cause.
Effects of The War  

The Egba-Dahomey War had several significant effects on the people and societies involved, and several memorable events occurred during the conflict. Here are some of the effects and memorable events:

Territorial control: The war led to a shift in territorial control, with the Egba people successfully defending their territory and resisting the territorial ambitions of the Dahomey Kingdom.

Abolition of the slave trade: The war led to increased British involvement in the region, and the British authorities used their influence to pressure the Dahomey Kingdom to abandon the slave trade. The slave trade was eventually abolished in Dahomey in 1851.

Loss of life and displacement: The war led to significant loss of life on both sides, and many people were displaced from their homes and communities due to the conflict.
History of Fasting and their religious Mentor across the Globe

History of Fasting and their religious Mentor across the Globe

History of Fasting and their religious Mentor across the Globe

Some of you have not heard about Himalaya before .

The hidden secrets of that place still remain a secret for the shallow minds who always look for proof but would not see because they are blind to see the truth and only believe in what their eyes can see.

Why are you practicing a religion and have faith if you can't believe a fellow man that was blessed with knowledge? It is just a sign that you are a fool.

You are just a follower following the blind and with no purpose .

Beego is a traditional Chinese tradition where you have to fast by drinking only water

There’s a reason that religions such as Taoism, Sikhism, Jainism, Islam, Hinduism, Lutheranism, Catholicism, and Buddhism all fast.

Tell me if anyone of this religion is not in china or Korea.???

Fasting began with the Ancient Greeks, especially Hippocrates and Pythagoras. Later, fasting caught on with Muhammed, Buddha, and Jesus Christ.

Without Pythagoras, we wouldn’t have Aristotle or Plato’s knowledge, as he inspired both of them and their personal philosophies. These philosophies would give way to Western philosophy, which formed and shaped the Western world.

Pythagoras would go on fasts of 40 days at a time for better creativity and mental perception. When he did eat, it was a vegetarian diet, as was the case for his followers, known as the Pythagoreans.

Hippocrates was another notable figure in Ancient Greek fasting. Born 460 BC and died 370 BC.

Hippocrates is said to have stated that “fasting is the greatest remedy – the physician within.” 

Buddha or Siddhartha Gautama, an Ancient Indian religious leader, spiritual teacher, mediator, mendicant, and philosopher was another major figure in fasting. Born around 480 BCE and died in 400 BCE, Buddha fasted quite often, typically taking his fasts beyond a reasonably healthy limit. At one point, Buddha fasted for so long that he became emaciated, which is not something we’d recommend today or ever, really.

Buddhist fasting allowed you to eat in the morning, but once the clock struck noon, you could not eat for the rest of the day. 

It was a serious offense if someone following Buddhism happened to break this fasting rule.

The other school of thought was pindapata, where monks would beg all day for food, as they were only able to consume what they collected in their bowls when the day was over. On bad days when the monks weren’t given much or anything at all, they fasted.

In Seon Buddhism in Korea, fasting and meditation go hand in hand, especially during geumchok training.

Shingon and Tendai, two sects of Japanese Buddhism, follow weeklong fasts known as danjiki to become a master teacher or acharya. In. Tendai school especially, these fasts sometimes go on even longer than a week, such as nine days at a time.

Chinese Buddhists believe in the eight-fold fast or baguan zhai. When on a fast of this nature, the eating window ends at noon. Fasts might last for three or six days. During eating windows, fish has to be avoided.

Another major religious figure outside of Buddha who fasted was Jesus Christ, born 4 BC and died around 30 or 33 AD.

Unlike the followers of other religious figures, Jesus’ disciples didn’t fast. Jesus was even asked about this one day, but he noted how his disciples would begin fasting after he died.

On a final note, this single article cut across china and Korea .

No fool, I repeat only fool would say they don't fast in china and Korea simply because you are a follower of a fool and a greater fool.

Friday, March 15, 2024

The brief history of ADO AWAYE and the highlight features that makes AWAYE a wonderful town

The brief history of ADO AWAYE and the highlight features that makes AWAYE a wonderful town

The brief history of ADO AWAYE and the highlight features that makes AWAYE a wonderful town

Ado Awaye was founded in 1500 AD. The Alaafin of Oyo’s crown prince, Koyi, who was supposed to become the Alaafin was denied and his younger brother, Onigbogi, took over.

 In anger, he left Oyo with one of his father’s crowns and decided to go and settle in Otta, his mother’s town.

 However, he went through plain grounds until he got foot of the Ado Hill, where he saw a smoke. 

He climbed the mountain and there, he met some escapees from the Dahomey war. Having agreed and discussed with them, they decided to make him King of Ado.

The Alaafin of Oyo’s crown prince, Koyi, who was supposed to become the Alaafin was denied and his younger brother, Onigbogi, took over.

 In anger, he left Oyo with one of his father’s crowns and decided to go and settle in Otta, his mother’s town. 

However, he went through plain grounds until he got foot of the Ado Hill, where he saw a smoke. 

He climbed the mountain and there, he met some escapees from the Dahomey war. Having agreed and discussed with them, they decided to make him King of Ado.

Highlight of features that makes Ado-Awaye a wonderful and exciting town.

The highlight of features that makes Ado-Awaye a wonderful and exciting town.

1. Iyake Lake.

Iyake Lake is the only recognized suspended/hanging lake in Africa – one of the only two in the world after the Hanging Lake in Colorado.

 It has been named as one of the fascinating sites to visit in Nigeria as well as one of the seven wonders of Nigeria. It is said to be bottomless and have swallowed those who have tried to measure its depth.

 Till today, whoever enters the lake never comes out of it. It is said to be the main god of fertility of the Mountain.

 The villagers believe that beneath the lake exists another world that looks like the earth, and whoever transits into that world by diving into the lake will never return.

2. Agbómofúnyàké.

Agbómofúnyàké literally means “collects child and gives to iyake”. This little hole is located just beside the iyake lake. It is believed that, whenever the hole has water in it, whoever puts his leg into it gets dragged to the bottom of iyake lake.

3. Ìyá-Aláró Lake.

It is also one of the numerous lakes on the mountain. The lake was named after an old woman in the Ado-Awaye village, who specializes in dying of clothes. 

It is said that the old woman, known as “Iya Alaro”, worships the lakes and sacrifices to it at specific times during the year.

 The lake is characterized by a gloomy depth which underscores its association with Iya Alaro and its surface and surrounding is bedecked with a lush overgrowth of colourful vegetation.

4. Oke Ishage (Ishage Rock).

Ishage Rock is the bringer of rain for the Ado-Awaye people. It is a large elongated boulder of rock, balanced and standing upright on one of its small edges.

 The fact that this boulder has not fallen off the steep mountain side on which it rests remains a mystery to all. 

Whenever it doesn’t rain and rain is needed, the chief priest goes to the rock, covers the “waist” of the rock with a white cloth, then rain falls for 3-4 days straight.

5. Esè àwon Àgbà.

Esè àwon Àgbà translates to “the footprint of the elders”. It is a cluster of large “footprints” found all over the mountain. It is believed that the gods once walked over the mountain to protect the locals during the time the locals stayed up the mountain.

6. The Elephant Tree.

This is composed of the tangled trunk or root of a fallen tree which dramatically takes the form of the head and trunk of an elephant. The eyes of the elephant are also well represented on the formation. Hikers on the mountain are often tempted to climb the formation and sit on the ‘elephant’s head’ while posing for photos.

7. Esè kan Aiyé Esè kan Òrun.

This is a wide and deep chasm on the mountain which separates one part of the mountain from the other part which hosts the peak of the mountain. Only brave mountain climbers dare cross this valley as the rock slopes steeply along the valley walls.

 Only a narrow, very steep and slippery path across the valley, links the two parts of the mountain.

It is said to be bottomless and have swallowed those who have trie d to measure its depth. Till today, whoever enters the lake never comes out of it. It is said to be the main god of fertility of the Mountain. 

The villagers believe that beneath the lake exists another world that looks like the earth, and whoever transits into that world by diving into the lake will never return to our own world again.
Jalumi War of 1878

Jalumi War of 1878

The Jalumi war, also known as Ogun Jalumi or Battle of Ikirun was a bloody war fought by Ibadan on the side of Ikirun against the allied forces of Ilorin, Ila, Ekiti and Ijesha on November 1, 1878 in the northeastern part of modern day Osun State.

The Jalumi war was among the devastating civil wars that plagued the Yoruba nation in the 19th century. 

Others are, Osogbo war, Ekiti parapo/Kiriji war, Ibadan-Ijaye war e.t.c. In June 1878, Ikirun, a town in modern day Osun State, called for the help of Ibadan to join her in fighting the armies of Ekiti, Ijesha, Ila and the Fulanis of Ilorin who had laid siege on Ikirun.

 Ibadan was unable to send her armies immediately because they went on an expedition to Meko, a town in modern day Ogun State.

When the armies returned on October 14, 1878, they were instantly dispatched to Ikirun under the command of Balogun Ajayi Ogboriefon who was ordered to reach Ikirun within five days.

Ibadan armies marched to Ikirun but had a tough time crossing the Oba and Osun rivers because it was rainy season and the rivers were full. 

Many Ibadan soldiers drowned while crossing the two rivers. 

The allied forces of Ekiti and Ijesha, (ekiti parapo) Ila-Orangun and Ilorin had chased the Ikirun armies to their town walls and were gradually winning the war.

On the 31st of October, 1878, Balogun Ogboriefon eventually arrived Ikirun with his soldiers. 

He saw the condition of Ikirun and immediately began planning and working. He shared command with a co-warrior named Osi Ilori.

 The rebel forces attacked Ikirun in three groups.

 The Ilorins under Ajia attacked from the northeast; Ogunmodede and Ayimoro led the Ijesha armies and attacked from the east and camped in the town of Iba, while the Ekitis under Fabunmi Okemesi and the Ilas under Prince Adeyala lurked nearby.

The battle began on November 1st, 1878. The rebelling forces advanced on Ikirun.

 Osi Ilori took his army towards the east to fight the advancing Ijeshas while Balogun Ogboriefon fought the Ilorins, Ilas and Ekitis.

 The Ijeshas defeated Osi Ilori and his soldiers and captured him alive. The survivors retreated to the walls of Ikirun and reported their defeat to Balogun Obgoriefon who quickly attacked and tactically defeated the Ijesha force. 

He then returned to his previous position fighting the Ilorins.

 Ogboriefon successfully defeated the Ilorins and drove them out of their camp, but he was too late, Osi Ilori had already been killed.

He completed the victory by defeating the Ilas and Ekitis. 

Ibadan soldiers chased the Ilorin survivors to Inisa, a town between Ofa and Ikirun.

 When news reached the people of Ofa that the Ilorins were retreating towards Inisa, they cut the bridge across the Otin River in the rear and left the retreating Fulanis of Ilorin devastated. 

The Fulanis were pushed into the river by the Ibadans and drowned en masse; thus the war was named Jalumi which literally means “drown in the river“.

Hence the 1878 Battle of Ikirun was also called Battle of waterloo

.After the war, Ibadan armies stationed in Ikirun but left after an agreement between Ikirun and Ibadan. 

This birthed the statement “Kí ogun ó tó kúrò ní Ìkìrun, ọ̀rọ̀ ló tẹ́lẹ̀” which means “Before warriors left Ikirun, there were some discussions/agreement”.

A water cannon monument marking the end of the Jalumi war is located at Odo Otin River bank in Inisa till today.


* Johnson, Samuel; The History of the Yorubas: From the Earliest Times to the Beginning of the British Protectorate [Accessed 2017-07-19]

* Omipidan, Teslim; OldNaija; Historical wars in Yorubaland []

* Smith, Sydney, Robert; “Kingdoms of the Yoruba”; 3rd ed.; 1987; University of Wisconsin Press [Accessed 2017-07-18]
Osogbo War of 1840

Osogbo War of 1840

Osogbo War of 1840

After the Fulanis systematically captured and made Ilorin their territory, they sacked the old Oyo Empire in 1835/1636. 

They were still not satisfied with their victory; they wished to extend their rule deep into the heart of Yoruba land.

 Thus in 1840, they set to capture Osogbo, a Yoruba town. 

The Fulanis, under the command of Ali, the Hausa balogun of Ilorin, laid siege on Osogbo.

When the king of Osogbo realized that the Ilorins were too strong for the Osogbo army, he summoned the Ibadans for help. 

Ibadan immediately sent some auxiliaries to Osogbo under the command of Obele alias Mobitan, and Alade Abimpagun. 

As this force could not stop the Ilorins, another contingent was sent to Osogbo under a more experienced leader.

 But still the Ilorins won every battle and gained more ground.

When Ibadan realized that the Ilorins were becoming more threatening to Yoruba land, they sent a large and stronger force under Balogun Oderinlo to crush the intruding forces and Jammas of Ilorin. 

When Oderinlo and his men arrived at the battlefield, they realized that things had gone worse than they thought. 

They could not show their faces in the open field for the fear of the Ilorin horses, and for about 20 days after their arrival at Osogbo, they could not fight outside the town thickets.

 Oderinlo suggested that Elepo, a brave Ibadan warrior was badly needed at the war-front. 

Elepo had been rejected by the war-chiefs of Ibadan for his actions at the late Agbamaja expedition.

As soon as the message from Oderinlo reached Ibadan, the Bashorun wished he could send Elepo to Osogbo but could not go against the wish of other war-chiefs.

 The Bashorun gave Elepo a cow to worship his god, Ori, and pray for the victory of Ibadan at the war-front.

At the war-front, the Ibadan could not attack the Ilorins during the day because Osogbo was practically in a plain and the Ilorin horses might have advantage of them with disastrous results. 

They decided to attack at dusk when the Ilorins would no longer be able to use their horses. About 2:pm, the well prepared Ibadan army left the gate of Osogbo for the battlefield.

They were to keep a strict watch and arrest anyone suspected to be a spy. 

About a mile from the Ilorin camp, they halted and arranged the order of the attack.

 The Osogbo army and the earlier auxiliaries were to handle the center of the battlefield, chiefs Abitiko and Labuju were to command the right wing, Balogun Oderinlo with the rest of the Ibadan war-chiefs were to form the left wing of the army.

 The Ilorin camp was then attacked at midnight. The watchword was “Elo ni owo odo?” (How much is the ferry fare?). 

The reason this watchword was chosen was because the river Osun had to be crossed in entering Osogbo from the south, and anyone who could not tell this was likely to be an enemy.

Stampede engulfed the Ilorin camp as the Ibadan army set it on fire. The Ilorins could not offer the slightest resistance; they were smoked with the gun powder of the Ibadan guns.

 This attack was a success for the Ibadan. Some Ilorin war-chiefs were captured in the attack.

 Prominent ones were:

Jimba the head slave of the Emir;

One of the sons of Ali the commander in chief;

Chief Lateju;
Ajikobo the Yoruba Balogun of Ilorin

The first two were released while the latter two, being Yoruba by birth, were regarded as traitors and were executed.

 This was a huge victory for the whole of Yoruba land.

 After the Osogbo victory, Ibokun, an Ijesa town not far from Osogbo was taken by the Ibadans for being an ally of Ilorin.

Johnson, Samuel; The History of the Yorubas; Lagos; CSS Limited; 1921; pg. 80-81

Wednesday, March 13, 2024

The Most Powerful Women in the Palace of Alafin of OYO

The Most Powerful Women in the Palace of Alafin of OYO

The old dynasty dates back to the old Oyo Empire which with Aláàfin as the emperor.

However, there are powerful women who controls the kingdom. They include among others:

1. Iyamode: Iyamode is the only person in the entire world the Aláàfin is permitted to kneel down before. He kneels before no one else except Iyamode. Iyamode occupies a role deeply respected that the king call her ‘Baba’ (father).

Whenever the Aláàfin goes on his knees before this powerful woman, she also returns the salutation by going down on her knees but never recline on her elbows while doing so as this is the custom of women in saluting their superiors. She resides outside of the palace and she is the superior of the celibates living in Bara (the royal mausoleum). 

Once a woman becomes Iyamode, she becomes celibate and stays away from sex for life. She is one of the most senior priestess inside the Aláàfin’s royal court.

2. Obagunte: She represents the Aláàfin in the Ogboni fraternity and enter Ogboni chamber on all occasion and at will.

3. Eni Oja: She is the head of all the Eshu worshippers in Oyo and she is in charge of the king’s market.

4. Iya Naso: The Aláàfin of Oyo is worshipped as the living incarnation of the Sango, the god of thunder. 

Inside the palace, the Aláàfin has a private place where he worships Sango. Iya Naso’s is in charge of this spiritual room. She has to do with Sango Worship generally and she’s the one responsible for everything linked to it. The worship and rituals.

5. Iya Kere: Iya Kere is the person who places the crown on the head of the king at the coronation. 

She is the only one in charge of the treasures and paraphernalia Of the Oyo kingdom, including the crowns. Iya Kere is also the mother of all illari (male and female eunuchs) who are kept in the palace with half their heads shaved off).

 Iya Kere exercises full power over the feudal heads like Aseyin, Oluwo and Soun of Ogbomoso. Once she assumes the office, she remains a celibate for life.

6. Iya Oba: Iya Oba is the official mother of the king.

 After the demise of the Queen mother, any other lady of the palace is then made the Iya Oba and she is one who plays the role of a biological mother to him. 

Iya Oba is the third person in the room when the Alaafin and Bashorun worship the Orun in the month of September every year. Iya Oba is the fedual head of the Bashorun.

7. Iya Monari: it is the role of Iya Monari to execute by strangling any Sango worshipper who has been condemned to death. 

Sango worshippers condemned to capital punishment cannot be killed by the sword. She is also the second-in-command and assistant to Iya Naso.

8. Iya-Fin-Iku: She is Alaafins devotee to the Sango mysteries. It’s the normal practice for all Sango worshippers to devote one of their children to the worship of Sango and that is the role Iya-Fin-Iku fulfills for the Aláàfin.

 She is also in charge of the Sango ram which is allowed to go everywhere and around the market without anyone molesting it and the ram can also eat with impunity anything it so desire from traders.

9. Iya Lagbo: She is the mother of the crown prince (Aremo) in a case where the mother of the crown prince (Aremo) is deceased, then another woman is promoted to that office and she becomes the mother of the crown prince (Aremo). Iyalagbon enjoys massive Influence and privileges and controls a portion of the kingdom. 

The Alaafin’s agunmu (medicinal powders) and agbo (concoctions) are placed in the care of Iya lagbo, the king’s private attendant who is in charge of his private pharmacy.

10. Aare Oriite: She is the Aláàfin’s personal attendant. It the Aare-Oriite who sees to it that the royal meals and royal bed is properly made. She also makes sure that the royal chambers are neatly arranged when an Aláàfin is enthroned, it is the Aare-Oriite who places the umbrella over his head as a canopy and she is constantly by the side of the Aláàfin to see to his needs.

These influential and powerful women communicate with the spiritual realm and guide every single step of the Aláàfin and they encourage and support him during periods of challenges and defend him from all forms of evil both physical and spiritual.

 They educate him on what he can eat and what is forbidden for him to touch. They are the ubiquitous brains behind the kingdom.

As only a mother can give birth to a son, only the great mothers can make a king.

Tuesday, March 12, 2024

Brief history of ODA

Brief history of ODA

Umologbe the founder of Ogbe is said to be one of the sons of Oduduwa, the founder of lle-lfe, which according to Yoruba mythology was the centre of the universe. 

Umologbe was a prominent and brave hunter as well as a hard-working farmer. As a hunter, he had as part of his traveling kits, guns, a relic crown, amulets for all purposes, and deity known as “Eegun Ogbe”, which was said to be the origin of Masquerade in Oda till date. 

Annually Asodeboyede would send certain things including ram to be sacrificed to “Eegun Ogbe”. 

This shows that there had been an age-long relationship between Oda and Akure.

Umologbe was said to have had a brief spell alongside Asodeboyede at Oritagun in Akure, before he left and finally settled at Ogbe, a large expanse of land with few aboriginal settlers who lived in scattered huts. 

Asodeboyede had earlier moved southwards under the leadership of Olojada also known as Umologbe, a prominent and skilful hunter and they reached a point of about six kilometers away from the present location of Akure and settled there. 

On one of the hunting expeditions which they usually embarked on collectively, Asodeboyede also known as ‘Omo Ekun” shot and killed an elephant.

 He immediately remembered his Ifa Oracle’s prediction before leaving Igbo Oye. It was at this stage that Umologbe left Asodeboyede and founded Ogbe.

Ogbe was said to mean quarters or places for the princes.

 There were about sixteen aboriginal villages surrounding Ogbe which was then a centre of attraction in the region. So also, there were various tribes that engaged in war with the Akures and the Ogbe people. 

Such tribes include among others the Idanres, Owos, and the Binis. The town was intermittently ravaged owing to different wars such as Ipata wars. During the period, war was an inevitable phenomenon and as such, all the traditional rulers in Ogbe always put up a brave defense of the Ogbe territory.

Many of the wars were won and some were lost due to different factors. However, there was a very tough war that shook the Ogbe city and its territory during the reign of Oba Opamudasuan. 

This was called ‘Ogun a ja mose lo”, this was supposed to mean a war whereby the enemies are given a tough resistance or tough fight. 

The classification was meant to make the traditional heads get well prepared and protect the Ogbe city and give its territories sound protection. However, the Oba of Ogbe at the time, Opamudasuan had a contrary translation of the preparatory message, which was sent by Ooni of Ile-lfe.

He consulted with his Army generals and they resolved that since the war was to be fought with their legs on firm land, a heap of wet mud, that is, beaten earth that would take Ogbe warriors were stationed round the city with their legs inside the wet mud. 

Opamudasuan has not completed the preparations for the war when he got words that the Aburu warriors were already approaching Ogbe. All the warriors were armed with weapons and the traditional ruler together with his war generals‘ stucked their legs into the beaten earth and waited in that position for war.

When Aburu warriors from Benin got to Ogbe and met the warriors in a motionless position inside the mud, they were killed in their hundreds and defeated. If the preparation had not “cemented” the Ogbe fighters to a spot, they would have escaped, regrouped to reclaim the City.

 By this single mistake, Oba Opamudasuan lost his life and all the glories of the ancient city of Ogbe. Thereafter, Seven other Obas emerged after Opamudasuan with Oba Agbedere a female the last traditional head of Ogbe.

When Ogbe fell around 1764, young men who were not recruited for the war and who saw the destruction of their ancestral home, escaped to Oda with the surviving women and children. 

The people of Oda received the Ogbe people who were the inhabitants of their headquarters and were ready to be in peaceful co-existence with them.

 Oda was initially conceived as a refugee camp for the Ogbe people until their surviving men were strong enough to re-build their ancestral home. 

Some of Ogbe people who were outside the community at the time Aburu war was on chose to settle in the places they were, for instance, Akure at the time they heard the news.

During the movement of Ogbe people to Oda, the Moses of the exodus was Prince Ausi. While escaping from the invaders, he had a cap on his head known as “Fila Ojukoba” meaning invisible cap, and this made it impossible for anybody to see him and his entourage. 

Prince Ausi later became Olojoda the traditional ruler at Oda because of his status at Ogbe. 

He got married to a famous woman named Ekusolatan, who was famous because she was credited with importing the Alaojo festival to Oda from Eku, whose location remained unknown to the inhabitants of the town till date.

Prince Ausi bore children named Olumadeji, Adegboye, Olokunolu and Erumola.

 Olumadeji the eldest son was appointed by his father, Prince Ausi to oversee llekun as the Elekun of llekun (a vassal chieftaincy under the Olojada). 

His four children constitute the ruling houses in Oda till present. Ilekun – ‘Ile Ekun’ (land of tiger), was an outpost settlement of Oda. 

This settlement as at that time was under incessant attack by tigers and other dangerous wild beasts. 

The prowess of Prince Ausi in defending llekun was the reason why he was made Elekun.

There are three ruling houses in Oda, and they are:-

1. Olumadeji
2. Adegboye
3. Okunbadejo

The list of Past Olojoda of Oda in Ondo

The list of Past Olojoda of Oda in Ondo

Umologbe – 1400-1414 A.D

Onimona – Not Stated

Aparikan – Not Stated

Onaouro – Not Stated

Asinrin – Not Stated

Olitini (Female) – Not Stated

Orunmua – Not Stated

Umolumode – Not Stated

Orunmeio – Not Stated

Oalogbe – Not Stated

Oadonaru – Not Stated

Oalokorokoro – Not Stated

Oasodigo – Not Stated

Oaolosukatasu – Not Stated

Oalopo – Not Stated

Oalena – Not Stated

Oadigbo – Not Stated

Oasona – Not Stated

Oasojuorunmowo – Not Stated

Oajagun- Not Stated

Ogbemoyede – Not Stated

Awede (female) – Not Stated

Apele – Not Stated

Olounoro – Not Stated

Alademoyin – Not Stated

Alajaye – Not Stated

Ekunji – Not Stated

Odelua – Not Stated

Orudu – Not Stated

Ademilika – Not Stated

Okiji – Not Stated

Opayebo – Not Stated

Opamudasuan – Unknown – 1764 A.D.

Ajale – Not Stated

Omolona – Not Stated

Osunanlukedo – Not Stated

Agedo (Ibariba) – Not Stated

Sikosa (Alias Orijajogun) – Not Stated

Ajigi – Not Stated

Agbedere (Female) (Alias Aberinjalalo, alibaba o lude yeye o lopokiti baba) – Not Stated

Ausi – Not Stated

Olumadeji – Not Stated

Adegboye – Not Stated

Adegbemiro – Not Stated

Adegbemiro II – (1934 – Oct 12, 1976).

Akosile M.B. – March 22nd 1978 – Oct 2016.

International Association of African Researchers and Reviewers(IAARR)
Article by Ige, O.A.
Department of Social Science Education, Faculty of Education, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Nigeria.
Oral History of Orosun

Oral History of Orosun

History of Orosun: 

Oral history records that Orosun travelled down to Ikori (in Akoko area) where she met and fell in love with Olofin Aremitan, the founder of Idanreland. Orosun was one of the many wives of Olofin Aremitan.

From Ikori, she went with Olofin to Utaja (in Idanre). Subsequently, Orosun went to Akoko to collect her belongings so that she could return to Idanre to settle down with Olofin as his spouse.

 However, before she returned, Olofin unfortunately passed away and the people had moved to Oke-Idanre. 

Orosun followed the Idanre people to Oke Idanre and eventually became espoused to Agboogun.

During the reign of Owa Baganju, Orosun, the beautiful lover of Olofin Aremitan returned to Ufe-Oke from Ikori her hometown to resume her relationship with Olofin Aremitan, only to find out that Olofin had passed away.

 Orosun remained in Ufe-Oke (which was later renamed Idanre) and eventually married Owa Baganju.

Orosun was generally loved by Idanre people owing to her love for children despite not having one herself (she had offered her only child as a human sacrifice whilst in Ile-Ife). 

She was known as a healer of sorts, often cooking herbs with her ‘Ikoko Aremo’ to cure children of their illnesses. 

At some point, perhaps as a result of political intrigue, Orosun became the target of communal hatred and she was eventually assassinated at the foot of the highest hill in Idanre.

After her death, the people consulted the Ifa Oracle who revealed that Orosun had being unjustly treated and the oracle mandated that Orosun be given a proper burial ceremony, be deified and sacrifices be offered to her annually. 

The highest mountain in Idanre, at the foot of which she reportedly died, is named after Orosun and the festivals continue to be held in her honour yearly.

Monday, March 11, 2024

Sunday, March 10, 2024

Brief history of chieftaincy title in Ibadan

Brief history of chieftaincy title in Ibadan

Brief history of chieftaincy title in Ibadan 

The history of chieftaincy system in Ibadanland is dated back to the reign of Maye Okunade (1810-1831), soon after the second break-up of the settlement. 

Maye became the generalissimo; Labosinde became the Baba Isale while Lakanle became the leader of the Oyos.

However an open inter-class struggle in 1801 between Ifes and Oyo-Yoruba escalated into war between the Ifes who attracted support from Edun-abon and Ipetumodu, and the Yoruba who also received assistance from Ijaiye, Ede and Iwo, where there otrher pockets of refugees resided.

 The Oyo-Yoruba won, and Ibadan then became Oyo-Yoruba. 

It was after this war to as (Gbanamu war) in 1833 that the warlords resolved to make Ibadan their home and arranged for a settled government and took titles. 

Oluyedun the son of Afonja became the Bale and he was given the title of Are-Ona-Kakanfo of Yorubaland. However, a republican system of Obaship did not start until 1842 when Oluyole took over the leadership of Ibadan. 

The innovation became a regular feature whereby there evolved two separate chieftaincy lines, namely Bale Line and Balogun-Seriki Line. 

The Bale title gave the holder mainly civic responsibilities while the Balogun-seriki line comprising war chiefs, held purely military titles.

Further recognition of two lines was strengthened during the formation of Ibadan Traditional Council (Egbe Igbimo Ilu) in 1879 by Resident F.C. Further. 

The council was made up of 11 senior chiefs, five chiefs from Bale line and six chiefs from Balogun line.

 Principal additional titles were introduced by Fijabi 1 (Bale 1893-1895): 
Fajimi (Bale 1897-1902); and 
Apapa (Bale 1907-19120). 

A few of the present junior titles have been created since 1910.

 Besides the two main line of obaship, the younger and unproven warriors had their own line that was headed by Seriki (a young warrior of distinction). 

A fourth line was created to represent the women folk. The women line was civil and headed by Iyalode

 Once a family had a chief of any importance, that family will acquire some sort of prestige in the society. 

The chief’s successor which as a rule in pertained) is recognized as Mogaji, a Hausa word meaning heir. 

The Mogaji needs not be the first son of the late Mogaji, more often the eldest man in the family is chosen, but ability and character are usually considered.